Cancer.gov

Comprehensive Cancer Information

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Symptoms of Cancer

Cancer can cause many symptoms, but these symptoms are most often caused by illness, injury, benign tumors, or other problems. If you have symptoms that do not get better after a few weeks, see your doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.

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Cancer Statistics

The rate of new cases of cancer (cancer incidence) is 442.4 per 100,000 men and women per year (based on 2013–2017 cases). The cancer death rate (cancer mortality) is 158.3 per 100,000 men and women per year (based on 2013–2017 deaths). The cancer mortality rate is higher among men than women (189.5 per 100,000 men and 135.7 per 100,000 women).

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Treatment for Cancer

Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. You may also have immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy. Clinical trials might also be an option for you. Clinical trials are research studies that involve people.

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Metastatic Cancer: When Cancer Spreads

Cancer cells spread through the body in a series of steps. These steps include: growing into, or invading, nearby normal tissue; moving through the walls of nearby lymph nodes or blood vessels; traveling through the lymphatic system and bloodstream to other parts of the body; stopping in small blood vessels at a distant location, invading the blood vessel walls, and moving into the surrounding

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The Genetics of Cancer

Cancer is a genetic disease—that is, cancer is caused by certain changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide.. Genes carry the instructions to make proteins, which do much of the work in our cells.Certain gene changes can cause cells to evade normal growth controls and become cancer.

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Physical Activity and Cancer Fact Sheet

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition, released in 2018 (), recommends that, for substantial health benefits and to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, adults engage in150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 75 to 100 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of

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Psychological Stress and Cancer

Apparent links between psychological stress and cancer could arise in several ways. For example, people under stress may develop certain behaviors, such as smoking, overeating, or drinking alcohol, which increase a person’s risk for cancer. Or someone who has a relative with cancer may have a higher risk for cancer because of a shared

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Risk Factors for Cancer

Cancer risk factors include exposure to chemicals or other substances, as well as certain behaviors. They also include things people cannot control, like age and family history. A family history of certain cancers can be a sign of a possible inherited cancer syndrome.

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Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®)–Patient Version

Good nutrition is important for cancer patients. Nutrition is a process in which food is taken in and used by the body for growth, to keep the body healthy, and to replace tissue.Good nutrition is important for good health. Eating the right kinds of foods before, during, and after cancer treatment can help the patient feel better and stay stronger. A healthy diet includes eating and drinking

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Cancer Causes and Prevention

Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the risk of getting cancer. This can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to known cancer-causing substances, and taking medicines or vaccines that can prevent cancer from developing.

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Cancer Screening

Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can …

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

NCI's Dictionary of Cancer Terms provides easy-to-understand definitions for words and phrases related to cancer and medicine.

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Curcumin (Curcuma, Turmeric) and Cancer (PDQ®)–Health

This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of curcumin in the treatment of people with cancer.. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians in the care of their patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for

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Obesity and Cancer Fact Sheet

Kidney cancer: People who are overweight or obese are nearly twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop renal cell cancer, the most common form of kidney cancer . The association of renal cell cancer with obesity is independent of its association with high blood pressure, a …

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Understanding Cancer

Understanding Cancer. Cancer is not one disease, but a collection of related diseases that can occur almost anywhere in the body. At its most basic, cancer is a disease of the genes in the cells of our body. Genes control the way our cells work. But, changes to these genes can cause cells to malfunction, causing them to grow and divide when

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Cell Phones and Cancer Risk Fact Sheet

There are two main reasons why people are concerned that cell (or mobile) phones might have the potential to cause certain types of cancer or other health problems: Cell phones emit radiation (in the form of radiofrequency radiation, or radio waves), and cell phone use is widespread.Even a small increase in cancer risk from cell phones would be of concern given how many people use them.

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News & Events

October 26, 2021. Part 2 of the 2021 Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, finds that the patient economic burden associated with cancer care in the United States in 2019 was $21.09 billion. This includes patient out-of-pocket costs of $16.22 billion and patient time costs of …

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Drugs Approved for Different Types of Cancer

Drugs approved by the FDA for specific types of cancer are listed on this page. The drug names link to NCI's information summaries about these drugs. The pages are updated when new cancer drugs are approved. See Drugs Approved for Childhood Cancers for a list specific to children

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Tea and Cancer Prevention

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2010; 120(3):693–702. [PubMed Abstract] Bhoo Pathy N, Peeters P, van Gils C, et al. Coffee and tea intake and risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2010; 121(2):461–467. [PubMed Abstract] Dai Q, Shu XO, Li H, et al. Is green tea drinking associated with a later onset of breast cancer?

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Financial Burden of Cancer Care Cancer Trends Progress

The national cancer-attributed medical care costs in the United States are substantial and projected to increase due to population changes alone, according to the Medical Care Costs Associated with Cancer Survivorship in the United States article, published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention (1). National costs for cancer care were estimated to be $190.2 billion in

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¿Qué es el cáncer

Cáncer es el nombre que se da a un conjunto de enfermedades relacionadas. En todos los tipos de cáncer, algunas de las células del cuerpo empiezan a dividirse sin detenerse y se diseminan a los tejidos del derredor. El cáncer puede empezar casi en cualquier lugar del cuerpo humano, el cual está formado de trillones de células.

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How Cancer Is Diagnosed

Tumor markers are substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer. Most tumor markers are made by normal cells and cancer cells but are produced at much higher levels by cancer cells. Learn more about tumor markers and how they are used to diagnose cancer. Imaging Tests

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Breast Cancer—Patient Version

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Start here to find information on breast cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

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Cervical Cancer—Patient Version

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. The primary risk factor for cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Start here to find evidence-based information on cervical cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

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Colorectal Cancer—Patient Version

Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Start here to find information on colon and rectal cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

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Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

To date, nine randomized controlled trials of dietary antioxidant supplements for cancer prevention have been conducted worldwide. Many of the trials were sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. The results of these nine trials are summarized below. Trial …

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Lung Cancer—Patient Version

Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical

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Cancer: A Historic Perspective SEER Training

Cancer: A Historic Perspective. Since the earliest medical records were kept, cancer as a disease has been described in the history of medicine.The earliest known descriptions of cancer appear in seven papyri, discovered and deciphered late in the 19th century.

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Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

Breast cancer: One case-control study found that women who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk of breast cancer . A meta-analysis of studies conducted in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and the Netherlands found no association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer risk ( 18 ).

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Prostate Cancer—Patient Version

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly, and finding and treating it before symptoms occur may not improve men’s health. Start here to find information on prostate cancer treatment, …

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National Cancer Institute

Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research . Bioinformatics, Big Data, and Cancer. Key Initiatives. Progress. Annual Report to the Nation. Research Advances by Cancer Type. Stories of Discovery. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery. Resources for …

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Cancer in Children and Adolescents

Cancer occurs more frequently in adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 39 years than in younger children, although incidence in this group is still much lower than in older adults. According to the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (), each year in 2014–2018 there were:. 17.8 cancer diagnoses per 100,000 children ages younger than 15 years

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Cáncer en español

El NCI ofrece información gratuita sobre temas de cáncer en inglés y español. Llámenos al 1-800-422-6237.

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NIH study illuminates lung cancer origins in never smokers

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Every year, more than 2 million people around the world are diagnosed with the disease. Most people who develop lung cancer have a history of tobacco smoking, but 10% to 20% of …

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Surgical Oncology and Cancer Immunotherapy Research

The Surgical Oncology and Cancer Immunotherapy Research Fellowships at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) encompass two time-honored programs combining basic research in surgical oncology with training in clinical research through direct patient care. The unique environment of the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) allows for direct bedside-to-bench and bench-to

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Immunotherapy for Cancer

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. The immune system helps your body fight infections and other diseases. It is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system.. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy.Biological therapy is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to …

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