Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment
The cancer guidelines recognize the growing sophistication of research methods, The term "nonlinear" is used here in a narrower sense than its usual meaning in the field of mathematical modeling. In these cancer guidelines, the term "nonlinear" refers to threshold models (which show no response over a range of low doses that include zero) and
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Methods to Develop Inhalation Cancer Risk Estimates for
The cancer risk due to the other nickel compounds was considered as unknown, and thus not contributing to cancer from nickel-containing emissions. Based on previous analysis of some of the largest nickel-emitting combustion sources indicating that at least 35 percent of total nickel emissions may be soluble compounds32, the EPA assumed that as
EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the
The new risk projections for bone cancer incidence from low-LET radiation are 2.04x10'4 Gy1 (males), 1.95x10'4 Gy1 (females), and 1.99x10'4 Gy1 (sex- averaged). About 35% of all bone cancers are fatal, and it is assumed here that the same lethality holds for radiogenic cases.
Carcinogen Assessment of Coke Oven Emissions
Cancer of sites other than lung, trachea, and bronchus and prostate was not significantly (P 0.05) in excess; neither were causes of death other than cancer. Among the 10 non-Allegheny County plants there was a considerable variation from plant to plant in the relative risks for all causes, and one plant had excessive risks for nearly every
SAB Report on EPA’s White Paper Valuing the Benefits of
----- cancer risks as being comparable to fatalities of other kinds and to discount these valuations appropriately, taking into account the latency period. 3.4 Consistency Across Assessment Components New Charge Question 4. Are current methods of estimating cancer cases avoided by regulations consistent with: (a) fundamental principles of
Carcinogen Assessment Groups List Of Carcinogens
----- evaluations that the chemicals presented a potential human cancer risk. The CAG agreed with most of lARC's evaluations. There are inconsistencies between the CAG and IARC evaluations for a few chemicals because the CAG considered information not available to or not otherwise used by IARC, and because there are differences in the criteria used in making the …
Evaluation of the Carcinogenicity of Unleaded Gasoline
Cancer of the genital organs was observed at expected levels (SMR = 103, p > 0.05); all other causes of death considered by the authors were deficits, Including the SMRs for all causes of death (SMR = 70, observed = 1»123, p 0.01) and all cancers (SMR = …
Proceedings of the First NCI/EPA/NIOSH Collaborative
Cancer is an interesting problem in the State of New Jersey because you have an opportunity to look at some very specific exposures in real time. As we were able to show in the National Survey of Environment and Health, we can get results in humans in a comparable time frame for that which is possible in experimental animals. Well, the New
Evaluation Of The Carcinogenicity Of Unleaded Gasoline
A quantitative analysis of cancer incidence in the two long-term animal gasoline inhalation studies is performed, an upper-bond cancer risk potency estimate is calculated, and the uncertainties in the estimate are discussed. The major conclusions are: (1) although employ- ment in the petroleum refineries is possibly associated with cancers of
Air Toxics Problem in the United States: an Analysis of
Cancer unit risk values were obtained from EPA's Carcinogen Assessment Group (CAG) and Clement Associates. EPA unit risk values are generally regarded as plausible, upper-bound estimates. That is, the unit risks are not likely to be higher, but could be considerably lower. In many cases, the unit risk values are preliminary.
Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation
----- VALUING NON-CANCER HEALTH EFFECTS USING BENEFITS TRANSFER Benefits transfer is an alternative to primary research that can be used to develop benefits estimates. In benefits transfer, valuation information on individual WTP from one or more existing studies is used to assess aggregate benefits of a proposed or new policy. The techniques
Cancer Risk: Specific Dose Estimate for 2,3,7,8-TCDD
Of those cancer deaths, five were from lung (2.85 expected, SMR=175), three were from lymphatic or henatopoietic tissue (0.88 expected, SMR=341), and one was a soft tissue sarcoma (STS) (0.15 expected). Only one of the cancer deaths, a lung cancer, was a nonsmoker. 2.
Review and Evaluation Of The Evidence For Cancer
Cancer is a complex group of diseases that characteristically progress through a number of stages, each of which may be initiated or accelerated by a number of different intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Each factor may act at one or more stages, and different factors may interact in an additive or a synergistic (multiplicative) way.
Facts about Skin Cancer in Florida
Office of Air and Radiation (6205J) EPA-430-F-10-020 July 2010 Skin cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in the United States.1"4 This fact sheet presents statistics about skin cancer for Florida and the United States as a whole. just the facts: Skin Cancer in …
Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values for 2
Two additional cases of pancreatic cancer were noted, along with cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. The authors concluded that "pronounced increases in risk were seen for total cancer, pancreatic cancer, all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers, and leukemia with increasing durations of assignment to the "chlorohydrin unit."
Analysis of 2,3,7,8-TCDD Tumor Promotion Activity and Its
The animal cancer data show that TCDD can act in a solitary manner causing tumors without the participation of other known factors. However, there exists animal cancer data indicating that TCDD can act as a tumor promoting compound. This analysis examines which type of carcinogen and which mechanism best characterizes TCDD cancer activiiy.
Investigation of Cancer Risk Assessment Methods: Volume 1
Cancer incidence was determined from 1958 to 1975 and compared to incidence rates from the county in which the factory was located. No significant differences with respect to total or respiratory cancers were seen in the factory when compared to expected values derived from those rates. The workers at this facility were primarily exposed to
Cancer Risk: Specific Dose Estimate for 2,3,7,8-TCDD
&EPA United States . Environmental Protection Agency Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Washington DC 2O46O EPA/600/6-88/007 Aa June 1988 Externaf Review Draft Research and Development A Cancer Risk-Specific Dose Estimate for 2,3,7,8-TCDD Review Draft (Do Not Cite or Quote) NOTICE This document is a preliminary draft.
Issue Paper: Inorganic Arsenic Cancer Slope Factor
Adjusting cancer mortality data for incidence 12. Child Sensitivity Issue This paper summarizes EPA's Drinking Water risk assessment (January 2001), the NRC's 2001 recommendations, and the Arsenic Cancer Slope Factor Workgroup's discussions. In addition, a brief summary of reports published since the NRC 2001 recommendation is presented.
U.S. Cancer Mortality Rates And Trends, 1950-1979: Volume
----- Cancer Sites ICD 9th Rev. Page Number Site WM WF NM NF* Volume 1 140-208 140 141,143- 146,148,149 142 147 150 151 153,159.0 1 54 except 1 54.3 155,156 157 All cancers combined Cancer of the lip Cancer of the oral cavity including tongue Cancer of the salivary gland Cancer of the nasopharynx Cancer of the esophagus Cancer of the stomach Cancer of …
Facts about Skin Cancer: Colorado
----- The Cost of Skin Cancer In the U.S., medical costs to treat skin cancer are estimated at almost $2 billion annually.14'15 statistics: Cause for Concern • In 2009, more than 1 million people were diagnosed with skin cancer, making it the most common of all cancers.1"4 More people were diagnosed with skin cancer in 2009 than with breast, prostate, lung, and colon …
Special Report on Ingested Inorganic Arsenic: Skin Cancer
The cancer response is well described by a quadratic polynomial in dose (with positive linear coefficient) for both male and female data. The minimum tumor induction time is estimated at 7 and 9 years for males and females, respectively; in both cases the cancer response for time-to-tumor is best described by time of observation (minus
SAB Review of Draft "EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and
5.4.2 Cancer Sites with Limited Data The RAC recommends that the EPA, in support for its rationale for estimating risk for specific cancer sites, look to the expected summary of cancer sites that have limited or inadequate data in the soon-to-be-published updated report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on the cancer
Preliminary Analysis of Cancer Rates in Primary Organic
The association of tetraethyl lead production and mortality is most obvious for nonwhites, noted in esophageal cancer (Figure 11), stomach cancer (Figure 4), cancer of the large intestine (Figure 10), and lung cancer (Figure 3). , Of the 284 comparisons, 113 mean CPC rates are higher than the national means (Table 1).
Trichloroethylene Issue Paper 4: Issues in
For the 537 deaths from intrahepatic bile duct cancer on the death certification, only 18% of the patients had hospital diagnoses of cancer at this site; 29% were diagnosed as having primary liver cancer, and 28% were found to have extrahepatic bile duct cancers when originally diagnosed (Percy et al, 1990).
Facts about Skin Cancer in North Carolina
Skin cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in the United States.1"5 This fact sheet presents statistics about skin cancer for North Carolina and the United States. just the facts: Skin Cancer in North Carolina • Sunburns. A survey conducted in 2004 found that nearly 30% of White adults in North Carolina had experienced at least one
Cancer Risk from Outdoor Exposure to Air Toxics, Volume I
Cancer Incidence • Based on the pollutants and source categories examined, total excess cancer cases were estimated to be between 1,700 and 2,700 per year nationwide. This is equivalent to between 7 and 11 cancer cases per year per million population.
Epichlorohydrin: Health Advisory
The cancer unit risk is usually derived from the linear multistage model with 95% upper confidence limits. This provides a low-dose estimate of cancer risk to humans that is considered unlikely to pose a carcinogenic risk in excess of the stated values. Excess cancer risk estimates may also be calculated using the One-hit, Weibull, Logit or
Cancer Mortality Rates and Drinking Water in 346 Counties
For cancer of the rinary -Or a .nSr drinking water was a significant variable on in white sales and nonwhite fe ales . For total, cancer mortality rates , the three occupational variables (petro.leua, chenical, :ining do not add to the variance explained ncr are they significant.
Fluoride: Dose-Response Analysis For Non-cancer Effects
These included transcription factors, genes related to signal transduction, structure proteins, transport proteins, cancer genes, genes related to immunity and genes related to apoptosis. A total of 964 genes were differentially expressed in the dental fluorosis group compared to the control group (71 robustly up-regulated and 60 robustly down
SAB Consultation on EPA’s Proposed Approach for Estimation
Cancer Res. 2006 May 15;66(10):5063-8 and Roushdy-Hammady I, Siegel J, Emri S, Testa JR, Carbone M. Genetic-susceptibility factor and malignant mesothelioma in the Cappadocian region of Turkey. Lancet. 2001 Feb 10;357(9254):444-5). That is, there may be a susceptible subgroup of the population and, if that is the case, assuming that this
Pilot Study of the Association Between Cancer Mortality
----- PILOT STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION IN 200 U.S. COUNTIES INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: As part of an attempt to identify health hazards posed by potential regulatory targets~ the Office of Toxic Substances (OTS) is undertaking a computerized statistical analysis of the relationship …
First Annual Report to Congress by the Task Force on
Cancer, heart and lung disease, accounting for 12 per- cent of deaths in 1900 and 38 percent in 1940, were the cause of 59 percent of all deaths in 1976. Patterns of illness and death have changed over the years. Medical advances have reduced the impact of infection and accident, and life expectancy has increased.
Estimation And Evaluation Of Cancer Risks Attributed To
Cancer incidence: Generally, the number of cancer cases in a given population. In the Southeast Chicago Area Study, the number of cancer cases in the study area is an es- timate derived through risk assesment tech- niques. See Risk assessment.) Cancer risk: Chances of getting cancer dur- ing a lifetime.
Risk Assessments Methodology Environmental Impact
cancer has developed in many of the organs irradiated (e.g., breast, brain, thyroid, probably salivary glands, skin, bone, and pelvic organs) following ranging than 10 to more than 100 (UN'SCBARSS) « has also occurred in some groups. The. followup period for most groups has been short, often less than 20 years.
Epidemiologic Bibliography: Cancer, Pesticides, and Farming
Epidemiologic Bibliography: Cancer, Pesticides, and Farming Prepared by Jerome Blondell Hazard Evaluation Division (TS-769C) Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460 JUNE 1988 tlbrary. *°™ 401. -------f June 1988 Epidemiologlc Bibliography: Cancer, Pesticides, and Farming Prepared by Jerome
Superfund Record of Decision: Fort Dix Landfill, NJ
£ cancer in a population of ten thousand (10 ) to one million (10 ) is expected to occur as a result of exposure to compounds associated vith a site. For noncarcinogens, vhere the sum of expected dose/RfD ratios exceeds one, observed concentrations pose unacceptable risks of exposure. A summary of current site risks can be found in table 7.
SAB Report: Estimating Uncertainties in Radiogenic Cancer
For the risk of cancer mortality, EPA assumes an uncertain multiplicative bias correction (unitless) that is described by a normal distribution with a mean of 1.1 and a standard deviation of 0.12. For lung cancer mortality, it is a log-uniform distribution ranging from 0.5 to 2.0.
Quantitative Estimate of Nonsmokers' Lung Cancer Risk From
Cancer risk — adjusted odds ratio —(lung, breast, cervix, and endocrine) among individuals ever married to smokers was 2.0 times that among those never married to smokers (p0.01). This increased risk was not explained by confounding individual smoking habits, demographic characteristics, or social class.
Assessment of Lung Cancer From the 1984 Tire Fire in
However, excess cancer risk levels above 1 in a million to 1 in 100,000 (10~6 to TO'5) generally give some cause for concern and suggest that exposures should be reduced. To put these numbers in perspective, however, a lung cancer risk of 10~6 to 10~5 is equivalent to smoking about 5 to 50 cigarettes in a lifetime.
Facts About Skin Cancer Maine
----- The Cost of Skin Cancer In the U.S., medical costs to treat skin cancer are estimated at almost $2 billion annually.13'14 statistics: Cause for Concern • In 2008, more than 1 million people were diagnosed with skin cancer, making it the most common of all cancers.1"4 More people were diagnosed with skin cancer in 2008 than with breast, prostate, lung, and colon …
SAB Report: Review of Draft Environmental Tobacco Smoke
A. Lung cancer in Adults The Committee noted that Chapters 3 and 4 draft risk document addressed only the issue of lung cancer risk for non-smoking women due to spousal smoking, It is suggested that the revised document be expanded to …
Cancer Risk From Outdoor Exposure to Air Toxics, Volume 2
Cancer risk due to heating was found to have a fairly wide range in annual cancer incidences per million population, from approximately 0.005 to almost 0.04 cancer cases per year per million population. This is equivalent to approximately 1 to 9 cancer cases per year nationwide. The 35-County study indicated that the emission estimates for
Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer
----- EPA/600/6-90/006F December 1992 RESPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS OF PASSIVE SMOKING: LUNG CANCER AND OTHER DISORDERS Major funding for this report has been provided by the Indoor Air Division, Office of Atmospheric and Indoor Air Programs Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Office of Research and Development U.S. …
Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer
ooLc &EPA Agency OfficG of Research and Development Washington, DC 20460 Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders EPA/600/6-90/006B May t 992 SAB Review Draft Review Draft (Do Not Cite or …
Facts about Skin Cancer: Kentucky
Skin cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in the United States.1"4 This fact sheet presents statistics about skin cancer for Kentucky and the United States as a whole. just the facts: Skin Cancer in Kentucky • Sunburns. A 2004 survey found that 27% of white adults in Kentucky had at least one sunburn in the past year.5 Sunburns are a